Cyber Security Interview Questions For Freshers 2023?
100+ Most Asked Questions during Cyber Security Interviews with Their Answers
If you are a fresher and just completed your training in Cybersecurity and preparing for a job interview, then these interview questions you must prepare which are asked most commonly during Cyber Security interviews.
However, if you are an experience holder, these interview questions will still benefit you and help you refresh the basics of Cybersecurity.
I tried to cover all the mostly asked cybersecurity interview questions in this post with their answers so that you don’t have to search for answers with any unknown resources.
At Cybersecurity Masters, we provide separate sessions to our students, including mock interviews, so they can quickly clear their interviews without fear.
However, if you can’t attend our session, still these questions will help you in many ways to understand the basics of Cybersecurity and crack your interview.
So, here are the Top 100+ Cyber Security Interview Questions for freshers that you must prepare if you are going for the job.
Table of Contents
Mostly Asked Cyber Security Interview Questions For Freshers 2023
Now that you have a basic knowledge about Cyber security so now it’s time to review all the Cyber security interview questions for freshers in 2022 that are mostly asked in the Interviews.
1. What is Cybersecurity?
Cybersecurity is the practice of protecting computer networks, systems, and data from malicious attacks. It includes designing, implementing, and maintaining security technologies, policies, procedures, and practices to prevent and detect cyber-attacks.
2. What are the most common types of cyber-attacks?
The most common types of cyber attacks include phishing, malware, ransomware, denial-of-service attacks, and SQL injection attacks.
3. How do you stay up-to-date with the latest threats and security measures?
I regularly attend security conferences, read security blogs, and participate in online security forums to stay up-to-date with the latest threats and security measures.
4. What steps would you take to secure a company's network?
I would conduct a vulnerability assessment, implement firewalls and intrusion detection systems, enforce strong password policies, and train employees on best security practices.
5. What is the difference between a virus and a worm?
A virus is a malicious program that infects a computer by attaching itself to another program or file, while a worm is a standalone program that can spread itself across a network without requiring a host file.
6. What is social engineering?
Social engineering is the practice of using psychological manipulation to trick people into divulging confidential information or performing actions that are not in their best interests.
7. How do you secure a wireless network?
I would use strong encryption protocols, disable SSID broadcasting, use MAC address filtering, and regularly update the firmware of the wireless access point.
8. What is multi-factor authentication?
Multi-factor authentication is a security process that requires users to provide two or more forms of authentication to gain access to a system or application.
9. What is the role of a security analyst?
A security analyst is responsible for identifying and assessing security risks, developing and implementing security policies and procedures, and monitoring security systems for signs of unauthorized access or malicious activity.
10. What are the most important skills for a cyber security professional?
The most important skills for a cyber security professional include strong analytical and problem-solving skills, excellent communication and teamwork abilities, and a deep understanding of security technologies and principles.
11. Can you explain the difference between symmetric and asymmetric encryption?
Symmetric encryption uses the same key for both encryption and decryption, while asymmetric encryption uses a public key for encryption and a private key for decryption.
12. What is a firewall?
A firewall is a security device that controls access to a network by blocking unauthorized traffic and allowing authorized traffic to pass through.
13. What is a vulnerability assessment?
A vulnerability assessment is a process of identifying weaknesses in a system or network that could be exploited by attackers.
14. Mention the difference between Threat, Vulnerability, and Risk.
A threat is when someone can cause harm to the system by damaging or destroying it. The team was commonly known as a Phishing attack.
On the other hand,
A vulnerability is a weakness found in a system that can lead to threats. Security professionals know how important it is to be aware of potential threats and vulnerabilities. And when you’re not, you may be the one who gets hacked.
Last but not least, A risk refers to the damage that can be done to the data if or when a threat exploits the already present vulnerability.
15. Explain the concept of defense in depth?
Defense-in-depth is a security strategy that involves using multiple layers of security controls to protect a system or network from a range of potential attacks.
16. What is the best way to strengthen user authentication?
You can strengthen your user authentication by using the below methods:
Two-factor authentication: Two-factor authentication requires the user to have two forms of identification to log into a system. This makes it harder for hackers to gain access to your system.
Good password policy: You should also use strong passwords and change them regularly. You can use a password manager to help you create strong passwords.
One-time passwords: These are random codes that users must enter before logging in to the system.
Password changes: You can change a user’s password frequently. This is an excellent way to ensure that users are not using the same password.
17. What is the difference between Asymmetric and Symmetric encryption?
Asymmetric and symmetric encryption are two different ways to encrypt data. Asymmetric encryption uses a public key to encrypt data and a private key to decrypt it and is the most common way to encrypt data.
However, it has some drawbacks as the public key is widely known, anyone can use it to encrypt a message, but only the person holding the private key can decrypt it.
On the other side, Symmetric encryption uses a single key to encrypt and decrypt messages. This method is more secure than asymmetric encryption because a single key is used to encrypt and decrypt the data, and only the person with the key can decrypt the message.
18. How would you respond to a cyber security incident?
I would follow the incident response plan, isolate the affected systems, collect and preserve evidence, and report the incident to the appropriate authorities.
19. What is the role of encryption in cyber security?
Encryption is used to protect data from unauthorized access by converting it into a code that can only be deciphered with the appropriate key.
20. How do you protect against insider threats?
I would implement access controls, monitor user activity, and conduct regular security awareness training to mitigate the risk of insider threats.
21. What is the difference between a vulnerability and an exploit?
A vulnerability is a weakness in a system or network that could be exploited by an attacker, while an exploit is a piece of software or code that takes advantage of a vulnerability to gain unauthorized access or perform malicious actions.
21. How do you ensure compliance with security regulations and standards?
I would conduct regular audits, implement security controls that meet industry standards and regulations, and maintain documentation of security policies and procedures.
22. Explain the concept of least privilege?
Least privilege is a security principle that requires users and processes to only have access to the resources they need to perform their authorized tasks and nothing more.
23. What is a DMZ and why is it important?
A DMZ (demilitarized zone) is a network segment isolated from the internal network and used to host publicly accessible services. It is important because it provides an additional layer of security by limiting the exposure of the internal network to external threats.
24. How do you ensure the security of mobile devices?
I would implement strong password policies, enforce encryption on mobile devices, use mobile device management (MDM) software, and regularly update the software on mobile devices.
25. What is the difference between a threat and a risk?
A threat is a potential security incident or attack, while a risk is a likelihood that a threat will exploit a vulnerability to cause harm to a system or network.
26. Importance of DNS monitoring?
The DNS is the most critical component of a website’s online presence. It is the gateway to all information about your site, including its IP address, name, and location. DNS monitoring is essential for several reasons.
It allows you to identify and resolve issues with your DNS before they can cause network users problems. Moreover, it helps you keep track of any changes made by malicious actors that could negatively impact your network’s security or allow them to take control of certain aspects of it.
27. What are Black, White, and Grey hat hackers?
There are three types of hackers: Black Hat, White Hat, and Grey Hat.
- Black Hat hackers are malicious hackers who seek to obtain sensitive information, disrupt the operations of a network, or cause damage to a system.
- White Hat hackers are good guys concerned with protecting their customers’ data and systems.
- Grey Hat hackers don’t care about their victims; they are just after money.
28. Can you explain the concept of patch management?
Patch management is the process of regularly updating software and firmware to fix known vulnerabilities and ensure the security of a system or network.
29. What is the difference between authentication and authorization?
Authentication is the process of verifying the identity of a user, while authorization is the process of granting or denying access to a resource based on the user’s identity and privileges.
30. Explain the concept of encryption key management?
Encryption key management is the process of generating, storing, and protecting encryption keys to ensure the security of encrypted data.
31. What is a virtual private network (VPN), and how does it work?
A VPN is a secure connection between two networks over the internet. It works by encrypting all traffic between the networks and routing it through a secure tunnel.
32. How do you protect against phishing attacks?
I would implement anti-phishing software, train employees to recognize phishing emails and websites, and use email filters to block known phishing attempts.
33. Explain the concept of a honeypot?
A honeypot is a decoy system or network that is designed to attract attackers and gather information about their methods and techniques.
34. What is the difference between a vulnerability scan and a penetration test?
A vulnerability scan is a process of identifying known vulnerabilities in a system or network, while a penetration test is a simulated attack on a system or network to identify vulnerabilities and test the effectiveness of security measures.
35. How do you protect against SQL injection attacks?
I would use parameterized queries, input validation, and access controls to protect against SQL injection attacks.
36. What is the role of encryption in email security?
Encryption is used to protect the confidentiality of email messages and attachments by converting them into a code that can only be deciphered with the appropriate key.
37. What are the various advantages of cyber security?
• Rogue Software
• Drive-By Downloads
• Man in the Middle
• Password Attacks
38. What is Cryptography?
Cryptography is a process of protecting information from third parties for whom the information is not made. Multiple techniques or programs are used to protect such information in this method.
39. What are the different steps that are used in setting up a firewall?
These are the different steps that are used in setting up a firewall
• Modify or change the default password for the firewall device
• Enable remote administration feature
• Check for the port forwarding option for various applications and ensure that they are working correctly or not.
• While installing a firewall and your DHCP will create a problem for you.
• Learn about the policies and learn whether your Firewall is configured correctly or not.
40 What is traceroute, and what are its different uses of it?
Traceroute is very beneficial in tracing the path of a particular packet, and it checks for the points on which the packets can travel. It is the tool that is used during the case when packages are not going to find out their actual path. It checks for the connection and learns about the things due to which the connection interrupts.
41. What is Phishing, and how to overcome the situation?
Phishing is an attack where a hacker wants the financial information of a particular person while sending them emails or messages.
Here are a few actions that you can take to prevent the Phishing
• Use firewall
• Learn about how to secure a particular website is before clicking on it
• Make use of the anti-phishing toolbar
• Make use of antivirus software
42. What are the different TCP/IP layer protocols?
• Application Layer – SNMP, RDISC, NFS, rsh, telnet
• Transport Layer – UDP, TCP
• Internet layer – ICMP, ARP
• Data Link – PPP and IEEE 802.2
• Physical Layer – Ethernet, Token Ring
43. What is Botnet?
The botnet is very beneficial in sending spam information and stealing data from a particular network. A botnet is a condition when multiple devices are connected across the internet, and all of these devices have more than one bot running over them.
44. What do you mean by salted hashtags?
Salted hashing is a technique used to protect passwords and other sensitive data. Hashing is a process of converting data into a fixed-length value or hash. A hash function is a mathematical algorithm that takes in data of any size and produces a fixed-length output.
The resulting hash is unique to the input data and is usually irreversible, meaning that it is difficult (if not impossible) to convert the hash back into the original data.
Salted hashing involves adding a random value (known as a “salt”) to the data before it is hashed. This salt is then stored alongside the resulting hash in a database.
45. What is the difference between a DoS and DDoS attack?
A DoS (denial-of-service) attack is an attack that attempts to disrupt the availability of a service or system by overwhelming it with traffic or requests. A DDoS (distributed denial-of-service) attack is a DoS attack that is carried out using multiple sources to amplify the attack.
46. What is a MITM attack, and is there any way to prevent that attack?
MITM, or Man in the Middle attack, is a condition when hackers place themselves in between two persons to steal information from them.
Ways to prevent the attack:
• Make use of the Intrusion detection system
• Use VPN
• Make use of HTTP
• Try to use public key pair-based authentication
47. How To ensure the security of virtualized environments?
To secure virtualization software, enforce access controls, use encryption for data at rest and in transit, and regularly update software and patches.
48. What is the difference between a security policy and a security standard?
A security policy is a set of guidelines and procedures that define how an organization will protect its assets, while a security standard is a specific set of technical requirements that must be met to implement the policy.
So, these are the top 20 most asked cyber security questions for freshers. So, if you want to build a cyber security career, you must know these questions. These are some of the most famous questions for a cyber security interview.
I believe the above information will be very beneficial in clearing your cyber security interview; moreover, if you are still unsure how to crack the Interview.
In that case, I recommend you join our Cyber security course that covers all asked questions for cyber security.
Additionally, our trainer will help you with the mock tests that again allow you to crack your cyber security interview.